Many diseases, which we had not heard of before, have appeared in recent times, including Multiple sclerosis “MS”, or what is called multiple sclerosis, and sclerosis, which is one of the most dangerous diseases that attack the central nervous system. In this article, we’ll cover MS and discuss its symptoms, causes, and common methods of treatment.
It is a chronic disease that accompanies the patient throughout his life and attacks the central nervous system, blocking the brain and spinal cord, this disease causes the immune system to attack the myelin sheath, which acts to protect the nerve fibers, and as a result, the communication between parts of the body does not work And the brain with high efficiency, and it can cause permanent damage to the nerves.
The number of people infected with this disease worldwide reaches around one million, mostly women, where the number of infections in women is double the rate of infection in men.
Causes of multiple sclerosis
Scientists have not been able to determine the cause of the immune system’s self-attack on the myelin sheath, which protects nerve cells, but a few factors are thought to contribute to triggering this attack. Especially:إقرأ أيضا:قضية فض رابعة اليوم السابع
- Environmental factorsScientists believe that viruses, bacteria and other parasites can be the cause of this disease.
- DNAThere are many studies proving the spread of this disease at a higher rate in Europe, although the probability of infecting the offspring of the affected person does not exceed the percentage of 5 Percentage, however, scientists strongly suspect that this disease may be an inherited disease, but its emergence is delayed until the appropriate stimuli are present.
- Geography and population distribution factorsWhen multiple sclerosis is prevalent in certain areas, The most importants: Southeast Australia, Southern Canada, Europe, North America.
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How to diagnose multiple sclerosis
It is one of the most difficult diseases to diagnose. Due to its similarity to other diseases in symptoms and causes, there are no specific tests to detect and diagnose the disease.
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- History of the diseases that the patient has contracted from the beginning of his life until the time when he had the symptoms of the disease
- Dependence on Magnetic Resonance Image Because it is useful if there is any type of disease affecting the nerves, and therefore, the disease can be recognized if the myelin sheath is damaged.
- Dependence on external stimuli and, upon examination, the extent of electrical signals emitted by the brain is measured as a type of response to the stimulus.
- Periodic examination of the nerves, where the doctor notes the strength of the muscles, as well as the muscle tension, and the sensation of pain, heat or cold of the patient, and depends on asking a group of difficult questions of the patient; To ensure his concentration, his ability to think and his self-control.
- The doctor takes a sample of cerebrospinal fluid for analysis. When the levels of white blood cells appear in the scans, and therefore, they can be identified from this disease in the event that it is high, and it is also possible to exclude a group of viral diseases, which are similar to sclerosis.
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Symptoms of multiple sclerosis
The symptoms of multiple sclerosis vary from person to person and include a range of problems, depending on the nerve fibers attacked by the disease. Or:
- Movement problems, including:
- Lethargy and weakness of a limb, Such asThe legs, the hands or the trunk, and it happens on one side of the body.
- Tremor in the limbs and body, and a state of imbalance when walking.
- Having problems with neck movement, especially when bending forward, as a result of an electric shock.
- Feeling of a layer of blur that obscures the vision.
- Partial or complete absence of an eye in one eye, in addition to feeling pain when moving the eye.
- A state of dimensional duplication of objects in view.
- Functional problems in the reproductive system:
- Bladder and bowel problems.
- A constant tingling sensation in the extremities of the body.
- A state of dizziness and fatigue.
Complications of the disease
- To be depressed.
- In a state of muscle stiffness and muscle spasms.
- Memory impairment, as well as severe mood swings.
- Paralysis, and in most cases it is in the lower half.
- Swallowing problems.
Treat multiple sclerosis
Scientists have yet to come up with a treatment that can cure a patient with sclerosis, but there is a group of drugs recommended by doctors that reduce the exacerbating effects of the disease and the multiple attacks it causes. As shown below:
- beta interferons: Genetically modified proteins, similar to the body’s natural proteins, which work to reduce disease attacks.
- GlatiramerAn alternative type of interferon B, which resists attacks by the immune system on the myelin sheath.
- Relaxon: Which works to calm and relax the muscles, as people with the disease suffer from muscle spasms.
Physiotherapy, as well as occupational and psychological therapy, can also be used to try to alleviate and combat Multiple sclerosis In addition to reducing his fits and fits, which have many forms, as discussed in the symptoms of the disease.